Which Genetic Disorder Is Associated With Childhood Obesity

Which Genetic Disorder Is Associated With Childhood Obesity

Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome are common genetic diagnoses that cause syndromic obesity. Down syndrome involves an extra chromosome 21, leading to a higher likelihood of obesity in childhood. Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by chromosomal deletion or methylation issues within a specific region, resulting in obesity as well.

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a condition that presents with reduced fetal movement, weak muscles, intellectual disability, short stature, lack of sex hormone production, and excessive weight gain.

How are childhood obesity cases categorized?

Childhood obesity cases can be categorized as syndromic or non-syndromic, with syndromic obesity involving disorders like Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alström syndrome. Non-syndromic cases can be divided into monogenic and polygenic obesity, with the latter being much more prevalent.

What causes a child to become obese?

Childhood obesity is primarily caused by consistent overeating, known as hyperphagia. In some cases, rare genetic variants in nine genes have been linked to monogenic obesity, but in most cases, no single genetic cause can be identified.

How many genes are involved in obesity?

There are at least nine genes that have been implicated in monogenic obesity, but in most obese individuals, no single genetic cause can be identified. More than 50 genes associated with obesity have been found in genome-wide association studies, but most have very small effects.

What causes syndromic obesity?

Syndromic obesity can be caused by various genetic syndromes, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Down syndrome. These syndromes result in abnormal functioning of genes, leading to metabolic changes and ultimately causing obesity.

Recent studies indicate that genetics play a significant role in obesity, accounting for 40-70% of cases. Over 50 genes have been identified as strongly linked to obesity.

Could genetics help treat obesity?

Researchers at the University of Virginia have identified 14 genes that can cause and three that can prevent weight gain, providing promising prospects for developing obesity treatments. This discovery could pave the way for new drugs to treat the condition, which afflicts over 40% of American adults.

Does the current obesity epidemic have a purely genetic basis?

The current obesity epidemic is not solely based on genetics, although genetics do contribute to an individual's susceptibility to it. Lifestyle changes in the past century have created an environment that reveals underlying genetic risk factors.

Are monogenic forms of obesity gene-disrupting?

Monogenic forms of obesity are examined for potential gene-disrupting causal mutations via Sanger sequencing in case-focused early gene discovery studies.

What causes childhood obesity?

Childhood obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, a sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and hormonal disorders. While some medical conditions and medications may contribute to obesity, they are rare causes. Diagnosis typically involves a physical exam and blood tests to rule out underlying medical conditions.

How to prevent overweight and obesity in children?

Childhood overweight and obesity can lead to severe health problems in later life. Therefore, it is essential to prevent it. To prevent overweight and obesity in children, parents must encourage a balanced and healthy diet and an active lifestyle. They must also limit their children's intake of fast and processed food with high sugar and fat content. By making these changes, children can maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of developing health problems in the future.

What health problems can a child have if he is obese?

Childhood obesity increases the risk of developing health conditions such as asthma, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, certain cancers, and fatty liver.

What are the causes of weight gain in children?

Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior, such as prolonged screen time, are major contributors to weight gain in children. However, consuming healthy foods and engaging in regular physical activity can promote healthy weight maintenance in children.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established cutoff points on growth charts to classify the severity of a child's weight problem. A BMI between the 85th and 94th percentiles is considered overweight, while a BMI at or above the 95th percentile is considered obesity. A BMI at or above the 99th percentile is classified as severe obesity.

What is childhood obesity?

Childhood obesity is a condition where children have a body mass index (BMI) equal to or above the 95th percentile on CDC's age- and sex-specific growth charts. This is caused by various factors, and preventing childhood obesity is crucial for their overall health and wellbeing.

Are there evidence-based recommendations for medical care for children and adolescents with obesity?

The February 2023 issue of Pediatrics has published a comprehensive "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Obesity," which includes evidence-based recommendations on medical care for those age 2 and older.

Is childhood obesity a risk factor for diabetes mellitus?

Yes, childhood obesity is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus, specifically non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). Children who are obese are four times more likely to develop glucose intolerance, which increases their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, over 85% of children diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese.

What is included in the child obesity guideline?

The American Academy of Pediatrics has released a comprehensive guideline on clinical care practices for the treatment of child obesity. The guideline is supported by an executive summary and two technical reports that assess interventions and comorbidities. This marks the first time the organization has issued such a comprehensive guideline.

Risk factors for obesity include genetic inheritance, unhealthy diet, certain medical conditions and medications. Social and economic issues can also contribute to obesity.

What is Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)?

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a common genetic disorder that leads to life-threatening obesity in children. It affects various aspects of a person's life, including eating, behavior, mood, physical growth, and intellectual development. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute is one of many federal agencies and NIH Institutes researching PWS.

How to prevent obesity in children with Prader–Willi syndrome?

Preventing obesity in children with Prader-Willi syndrome is a crucial task for pediatricians. Early introduction of preventative programs is essential to control caloric intake. However, it can be challenging due to low compliance.

How is Prader-Willi syndrome diagnosed?

Prader-Willi syndrome can be diagnosed through genetic testing if a newborn shows symptoms such as weakness, poor muscle tone, and difficulty feeding. Diagnostic criteria vary depending on the age of the individual, with formal criteria established for those three years of age and older.

Can a person with Prader-Willi syndrome live in a group home?

Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome typically do well in special group homes, and some may be able to work in sheltered environments. The genetic error that causes PWS occurs randomly in fetal development, and the risk factors are unknown.

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